N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) (aka “taurine chloramine”) was discovered as a product of activated human white blood cells (granulocytes and monocytes) by Polish researchers in 1971. The pure sodium salt of NCT was subsequently developed by Austrian chemist Dr. Waldemar Gottardi in 1989. This sodium salt has enabled researchers to investigate the usability of NCT as an agent for the treatment of infections in human medicine.

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  1. Lackner M et al. N-chlorotaurine, a novel inhaled virucidal antiseptic is highly active against respiratory viruses including SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). Research Square. 2020 (preprint).
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  5. Kyriakopoulos A et al. Swift Cure of a Chronic Wound Infected With Multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus in an Elderly Patient With Stage 5 Renal Disease. Int J Lower Extremity Wounds. 2019; 18(2): 192-196.
  6. Teuchner B et al. N-chlorotaurine Inactivates Acanthamoeba and Candida albicans in the Porcine Ex Vivo Corneal Infection Model. Cornea. 2019; 38(8): 1011-1016.
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  9. Bellmann-Weiler R et al. The endogenous antiseptic N-chlorotaurine irreversibly inactivates Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis. J Med Microbiology. 2018; 67: 1410-1415.
  10. Nagl M et al. N-Chlorotaurine, a Promising Future Candidate for Topical Therapy of Fungal Infections. Mycopathologia. 2018; 183: 161-170.
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  12. Gruber M et al. Bactericidal and Fungicidal Activity of N-Chlorotaurine Is Enhanced in Cystic Fibrosis Sputum Medium. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017; 61(5): e02527-16.
  13. Lackner M et al. N-Chlorotaurine Exhibits Fungicidal Activity against Therapy-Refractory Scedosporium Species and Lomentospora prolificans. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2015; 59(10): 6454-6462.
  14. Marcinkiewicz J et al. Taurine and inflammatory diseases. Amino Acids. 2014; 46(1): 7-20.
  15. Kim C et al. Taurine chloramine produced from taurine under inflammation provides anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects. Amino Acids. 2014; 46(1): 89-100.
  16. Gottardi W et al. N-Chloramines, a Promising Class of Well-Tolerated Topical Anti-Infectives. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013; 57(3): 1107-1114.
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  19. Teuchner B et al. N‐chlorotaurine and its analogues N,N‐dichloro‐2,2‐dimethyltaurine and N‐monochloro‐2,2‐dimethyltaurine are safe and effective bactericidal agents in ex vivo corneal infection models. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012: 90: e632–e637.
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  21. Schwienbacher M et al. Tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine in an acute pig streptococcal lower airway inflammation model. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2011; 11:231.
  22. Fürnkranz U et al. In vitro activity of N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in combination with NH4Cl against Trichomonas vaginalis. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2011; 37(2): 171-3.
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  24. Uchio E et al. Antiadenoviral effects of N-chlorotaurine in vitro confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction methods. Clin Ophthalmol. 2010; 19(4):1325-9.
  25. Huemer H et al. In vitro Prevention of Vaccinia and Herpesvirus Infection Spread in Explanted Human Corneas by N-Chlorotaurine. Ophthalmic Res. 2010; 43: 145–152.
  26. Koehsler M et al. Acanthamoeba castellanii: growth on human cell layers reactivates attenuated properties after prolonged axenic culture. FEMS Microbiology Letters. 2009; 299(2): 121–127.
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  28. Lorenz K et al. Effect of N-chlorotaurine mouth rinses on plaque regrowth and plaque vitality. Clin. Oral Investig. 2009; 13(1): 9-14.
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  30. Teuchner B et al. Tolerability of N-chlorotaurine plus ammonium chloride in the rabbit and human eye – a phase 1 clinical study. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2008; 246(12):1723-30.
  31. Huber J et al. Tolerability of N-chlorotaurine in the bovine mammary gland. Journal of Dairy Research. 2008; 75: 248-256.
  32. Fürnkranz U et al. Cytotoxic Activity of N-Chlorotaurine on Acanthamoeba spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008; 52: 470-476.
  33. Gottardi W et al. N-Chlorotaurine and ammonium chloride: An antiseptic preparation with strong bactericidal activity. Int. J. Pharmaceut. 2007; 335: 32-40.
  34. Romanowski EG et al, Irschick EU, Gordon YJ. N-Chlorotaurine is and Effective Antiviral Agent against Adenovirus In Vitro and in the Ad5/NZW Rabbit Ocular Model. Invest Ophth Vis Sci. 2006; 47: 2021-2026.
  35. Arnitz R et al. Protein sites of attack of N-Chlorotaurine in Escheria coli. Proteomics. 2006; 6: 865-869.
  36. Arnitz R et al. A novel N-chlorotaurine-corticosteroid combination as a preservative-free local disinfectant: Influence on the ciliary beat frequency in vitroActa Oto-Laryngologica. 2006; 126: 291-294.
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  38. Teuchner B et al. Tolerability and efficacy of N-chlorotaurine in epidemic keratoconjunctivitis – a double-blind randomized phase 2 clinical trial. J Ocular Pharmacol Ther. 2005; 21: 157–165.
  39. Gottardi W et al. Chlorine Covers on Living Bacteria: The Initial Step in Antimicrobial Action of Active Chlorine Compounds. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005; 55, 475-482.
  40. Gottardi W et al. N, N-Dichlorotaurine: Chemical and Bacterial Properties. Arch. Pharm. Chem. Life Sci. 2005; 338, 473-483.
  41. Neher A et al. Tolerability of N-chlorotaurine in the guinea pig middle ear – a pilot study using an improved application system. Ann Otol Rhino Larygol. 2004; 113: 76-81.
  42. Neher A et al. Acute Otitus Externa: Efficacy and Tolerability of N-Chlorotaurine, a Novel Endogenous Antiseptic Agent. Laryngoscope. 2004; 114: 850-854.
  43. Wirleitner B et al. Down-regulatory effect of N-chlorotaurine or tryptophan degradation and neopterin production in human PBMC. Immunology Letters. 2004; 93: 143-149.
  44. Gstöttner M et al. Refractory Rhinosinusitis Complicating Immunosuppression: Application of N-Chlorotaurine, a Novel Endogenous Antiseptic Agent. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2003; 65: 303-305.
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  46. Nagl M et al. Tolerability and efficacy of N-chlorotaurine in comparison with chloramine T for treatment of chronic leg ulcers with a purulent coating: a randomized phase II study. British Journal of Dermatology. 2003; 149: 590-597.
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  48. Nagl M et al. Impact of N-chlorotaurine on viability and production of secreted aspartyl proteinases of Candida spp. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002; 46(6): 1996-1999.
  49. Gottardi W et al. The influence of plasma on the disinfecting activity of the new antimicrobial agent N-chlorotaurine-sodium in comparison with chloramine T. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001; 53(5): 689-697.
  50. Nagl M et al. Enhanced fungicidal activity of N-chlorotaurine in nasal secretion. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001; 47(6): 871-874.
  51. Neher A et al. N-chlorotaurine, a novel endogenous antimicrobial agent: tolerability tested in a mouse model. Arch Otolaryng Head Neck Surg. 2001; 127(5): 530-533.
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  53. Nagl M et al. Bactericidal activity of micromolar N-chlorotaurine – evidence for its antimicrobial function in the human defence system. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2000; 44(9): 2507-2513.
  54. Nagl M et al. The postantibiotic effect of N-chlorotaurine on Staphylococcus aureus. Application in the mouse peritonitis model. J Antimicrob Chemother. 1999; 43(6): 805-809.
  55. Nagl M et al. Rapid killing of Mycobacterium terrae by N-chlorotaurine in presence of ammonium is caused by the reaction product monochloramine. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1998; 50(11): 1317-1320.
  56. Nagl M et al. Tolerance and bactericidal action of N-chlorotaurine in a urinary tract infection by an omniresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Zent bl Bakteriol 1998; 288(2): 217-223.
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  58. Nagl M et al. Activity of N-chlorotaurine against herpes simplex- and adenoviruses. Antivir Res. 1998; 38(1): 25-30.
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