Biochemical Properties

N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) is a human biochemical that contributes to the killing of invading pathogens, and to controlling and terminating the body’s inflammatory response.

Biology

N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) occurs naturally in the human body (endogenous substance), where it is physiologically created by white blood cells (activated human granulocytes and monocytes) during the innate immune defense against any infection (phagocytosis). Formation of NCT in vivo leads to detoxification of hypochlorous acid (HOCL), and NCT appears very well tolerated by human cells and tissue because of its mild reactivity.

Chemistry

N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) is a mild, long-lived oxidant derivative of the essential amino acid taurine (the most abundant free amino acid in humans and a potent antioxidant). NCT is pharmaceutically synthesized as a pure sodium salt (as listed on PubChem), which readily dissolves in water to formulate a topical antiseptic medication that is exceptionally safe and tolerable.

Mechanism of Action

N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) firstly acts as a chlorinating agent that inactivates virulence factors. It quickly covers pathogens with a layer of chlorine (‘chlorine cover’), which does not kill the pathogens, but causes them to lose virulence (microbiostatic) and delays their regrowth (postantibiotic effect). Secondly, NCT acts as a weak oxidizing agent that inactivates both enzymes and structures of pathogens that are essential for their survival.

Broad Spectrum Microbicidal

N-Chlorotaurine (NCT) inactivates a broad spectrum of virtually all infectious pathogens, i.e., bacteria (Gram-positive and Gram-negative), viruses (enveloped, e.g. SARS-CoV-2, and non-enveloped), yeasts, molds, fungi and protozoa.

As a consequence of the ubiquitous presence of ammonium in the human body, whenever NCT emerges monochloramine is formed, which is only slightly more reactive but significantly more lipophilic than hyrdophillic NCT. The consequence is increased penetration of pathogens but also body cells and tissue. This explains the relatively high microbicidal activity of NCT (abut 200 – 300 fold) when it comes in contact with body fluids. Nevertheless, the human body has developed tolerance towards NCT, and also its reducing substrates the essential amino acid taurine and chloride.